How to Customize Specific Elements and Colors

General Colors

There are two color inputs that affect many of the colors in the theme:

Other Colors & Styling Changes

For areas not affected by the color settings in the Customizer and for any other styling changes, our general recommendation is to use the Inspector feature available in  Chrome and Firefox. Just right click on an element on the page and select "Inspect" or "Inspect Element":

Then in the Elements tab you can see the CSS that is affecting the element in question:

From there, you can copy/paste the relevant lines into your child theme or Additional CSS area and make the necessary changes. (WP Dash > Appearance > Customize > Additional CSS)

More info on the Chrome Inspector:
More info on the Firefox Inspector:

Page Specific Changes

If you want to make changes specific to one page or just one section, you can make use of the unique IDs and unique classes.

The same as above, when you right click and select Inspect Element you'll see the source of the page which will show that each page has a unique class:

You can use that in your code like so:

.page-id-2710 h3 {color:#333}

That would change the color for all h3 tags on that one specific page.